Setup Rspec, factory bot and database cleaner for Rails 5.2.6

Let’s find out how to configure a best test suite in Rails by using Rspec framwork and the other libraries that support rspec for writing smooth tests. We will be removing rails native test folder and other configurations.

For that we will be using Rspec, Factory bot for factories, Database cleaner.

Lets start from adding these gems into our Gemfile

group :development, :test do
  # Rspec testing module and needed libs
  gem 'factory_bot_rails', '5.2.0'
  gem 'rspec-rails', '~> 4.0.0'
end

group :test do
  # db cleaner for test suite 
  gem 'database_cleaner-active_record', '~> 2.0.1'
end

Now do

bunde install # this installs all the above gems

If you have already built the Rails app, your app may contain Rails own test suite. Remove the native rails test suite to add Rspec module to your project.

We use Rspec over rails native test module because rspec provides better helpers and machnism than Rails native test.

in application.rb file comment the following line

# require 'rails/test_unit/railtie'

inside the class Application add this line:

# Don't generate system test files.
config.generators.system_tests = nil

Remove the native rails test folder:

rm -r test/

We use factories over fixtures. Remove this line from rails_helper.rb

config.fixture_path = "#{::Rails.root}/spec/fixtures"

and modify this line to:

config.use_transactional_fixtures = false # instead of true

This is for preventing rails to generate the native test files when we run rails generators.

Database Cleaner

Now we configure the database cleaner that is used for managing data in our test cycles.

Open rails_helper.rb file and require that module

require 'rspec/rails'
require 'database_cleaner'  # <= add here

Note: Use only if you run integration tests with capybara or dealing with javascript codes in the test suite.

“Capybara spins up an instance of our Rails app that can’t see our test data transaction so even tho we’ve created a user in our tests, signing in will fail because to the Capybara run instance of our app, there are no users.”

I experienced database credentials issues:

➜ rspec
An error occurred while loading ./spec/models/user_spec.rb.
Failure/Error: ActiveRecord::Migration.maintain_test_schema!

Mysql2::Error::ConnectionError:
  Access denied for user 'username'@'localhost' (using password: NO)

First I thought of using database cleaner, later I realised that this error is because of my credentials.yml.enc file was corrupted somehow. I don’t know how that happend. So try to edit and see your credentials still exists in this file.

EDITOR="code --wait" bin/rails credentials:edit

Now in the Rspec configuration block we do the Database Cleaner configuration.

Add the following file:

spec/support/database_cleaner.rb

Inside, add the following:

# DB cleaner using database cleaner library
RSpec.configure do |config|
  # This says that before the entire test suite runs, clear 
  # the test database out completely
  config.before(:suite) do
    DatabaseCleaner.strategy = :transaction
    DatabaseCleaner.clean_with(:truncation)
  end

  # This sets the default database cleaning strategy to 
  # be transactions
  config.before(:each) do
    DatabaseCleaner.strategy = :transaction
  end

  # include this if you uses capybara integration tests
  config.before(:each, :js => true) do
    DatabaseCleaner.strategy = :truncation
  end

  # These lines hook up database_cleaner around the beginning 
  # and end of each test, telling it to execute whatever 
  # cleanup strategy we selected
  config.before(:each) do
    DatabaseCleaner.start
  end

  config.after(:each) do
    DatabaseCleaner.clean
  end
end

and be sure to require this file in rails_helper.rb

require 'rspec/rails'
require 'database_cleaner'
require_relative 'support/database_cleaner'  # <= here

Configure Factories

Note: We use factories over fixtures because factories provide better features that make writing test cases an easy task.

Create a folder to generate the factories:

mkdir spec/factories

Rails generators will automatically generate factory files for models inside this folder.

A generator for model automatically creating the following files:

spec/models/model_spec.rb
spec/factories/model.rb

Now lets load Factory bot configuration to rails test suite.

Add the following file:

spec/support/factory_bot.rb

and be sure to require this file in rails_helper.rb

require 'rspec/rails'
require 'database_cleaner'
require_relative 'support/database_cleaner'
require_relative 'support/factory_bot'  # <= here

You can see the following line commented

# Dir[Rails.root.join('spec', 'support', '**', '*.rb')].sort.each { |f| require f }

You can uncomment it to make all the factories available in your test suite. But I don’t recommend that to load all the files. We will be loading each factory whenver it is necessary.

Final rails_helper.rb file. We won’t use capybara for integration tests. So we are not adding database_cleaner configuration.

# This file is copied to spec/ when you run 'rails generate rspec:install'
require 'spec_helper'
ENV['RAILS_ENV'] ||= 'test'
require File.expand_path('../config/environment', __dir__)
# Prevent database truncation if the environment is production
abort('The Rails environment is running in production mode!') if Rails.env.production?
require 'rspec/rails'
require_relative 'support/factory_bot'

# Checks for pending migrations and applies them before tests are run.
# If you are not using ActiveRecord, you can remove these lines.
begin
  ActiveRecord::Migration.maintain_test_schema!
rescue ActiveRecord::PendingMigrationError => e
  puts e.to_s.strip
  exit 1
end
RSpec.configure do |config|
  # If you're not using ActiveRecord, or you'd prefer not to run each of your
  # examples within a transaction, remove the following line or assign false
  # instead of true.
  config.use_transactional_fixtures = false

  config.infer_spec_type_from_file_location!

  # Filter lines from Rails gems in backtraces.
  config.filter_rails_from_backtrace!
  # arbitrary gems may also be filtered via:
  # config.filter_gems_from_backtrace("gem name")
end

A spec directory look something like this:

spec/
  controllers/
    user_controller_spec.rb
    product_controller_spec.rb
  factories/
    user.rb
    product.rb
  models/
    user_spec.rb
    product_spec.rb
  mailers/
    mailer_spec.rb
  services/
    service_spec.rb  
  rails_helper.rb
  spec_helper.rb

References:

https://github.com/rspec/rspec-rails
https://relishapp.com/rspec/rspec-rails/docs
https://github.com/thoughtbot/factory_bot/blob/master/GETTING_STARTED.md#configure-your-test-suite
https://github.com/DatabaseCleaner/database_cleaner

Model Specs

Lets generate a model spec. A model spec is used to test smaller parts of the system, such as classes or methods.

# RSpec also provides its own spec file generators
➜ rails generate rspec:model user
      create  spec/models/user_spec.rb
      invoke  factory_bot
      create    spec/factories/users.rb

Now run the rpsec command. That’s it. You can see the output from rspec.

➜ rspec
*

Pending: (Failures listed here are expected and do not affect your suite's status)

  1) Item add some examples to (or delete) /home/.../spec/models/user_spec.rb
     # Not yet implemented
     # ./spec/models/user_spec.rb:4

Finished in 0.00455 seconds (files took 1.06 seconds to load)
1 example, 0 failures, 1 pending

Lets discuss how to write a perfect model spec in the next lesson.

AWS SNS: How to send SMS to a topic, OTP SMS, promotional or transactional SMS

You can send SMS in 2 ways using AWS SNS.

  1. Subscribe to a topic that is already created in AWS SNS and send sms to all numbers who has the subscription.
  2. Send SMS directly to a mobile number.

You can find the following aws doc as a starting point from web and it describes how to create a topic, subscribe a topic and sending sms to the mobile numbers.

https://docs.aws.amazon.com/code-samples/latest/catalog/code-catalog-ruby-example_code-sns.html

For the demonstration purpose, I use Ruby here.

  1. Subscribe to a topic and send SMS
require 'aws-sdk-sns'  # v2: require 'aws-sdk'

sns = Aws::SNS::Resource.new(region: 'us-west-2')

topic = sns.topic('arn:aws:sns:us-west-2:123456789:MySampleTextTopic')

topic.publish({
  message: 'Hello!'
})

This assumes you already created a topic inside your aws console:

Goto AWS Console

  1. Open AWS SNS
  2. Goto Left side -> Mobile -> text messaging sms
  3. Create a topic

You can also follow the above link to perform an API to create topic, subscribe to a topic and send sms

2. Send SMS directly to a mobile number (eg: Send OTP SMS)

Either you can use aws console to send the sms or SNS API.

AWS console:

  1. Open AWS SNS
  2. Goto Left side -> Mobile -> text messaging sms
  3. We are using transactional text messages
  4. Goto publish text message
  5. Select transactional, add mobile number and publish it

Almost all cases we use an API for sending OTP SMS. For that follow the steps.

SNS API – Steps

gem install aws-sdk-sns 
require 'aws-sdk-sns'
otp = generate_otp
set_sns_client
set_sns_client_attrs
response = publish_sms(otp)
  • Generate an OTP
def generate_otp
    (1000..9999).to_a.sample
end
  • Set SNS client
def set_sns_client
    @sns_client = Aws::SNS::Client.new(
      region: ENV['AWS_SNS_REGION'],
      access_key_id: ENV['AWS_SNS_ACCESS_KEY'],
      secret_access_key: ENV['AWS_SNS_SECRET_KEY']
    )
end

  • Set SNS client attributes
 def set_sns_client_attrs
    @sns_client.set_sms_attributes({
                                     attributes: {
                                       'DefaultSenderID' => SENDER_ID,
                                       'DefaultSMSType' => SMS_TYPE
                                     }
                                   })
end

  • Publish SMS
def publish_sms(otp)
    @sns_client.publish({
                          phone_number: @mobile_no,
                          message: "#{OTM_MSG} #{otp}"
                        })
  end

Here ,

OTM_MSG: ‘Your OTP for login is’

SMS_TYPE : ‘Transactional’ or ‘Promotional’

If you want to send OTP, then it is ‘Transactional’. Else if you want to send some promotional sms of your product then it is ‘Promotional’

SENDER_ID: is the sms header that you already registered with TRAI.

The Steps to add Sender ID in AWS is given below:

For example suppose your sender id is: Zomato

Follow the steps to add our SENDER ID – Zomato to AWS SNS

  1. Sign in to the Amazon SNS console – https://console.aws.amazon.com/sns/home
  2. On the navigation panel, choose Mobile, Text messaging (SMS).
  3. On the Mobile text messaging (SMS) page, in the Text messaging preferences section, choose Edit.
  4. On the Edit text messaging preferences page, in the Details section, do the following:
  5. For Default sender ID , enter the provided sender ID to be used (Zomato) as the default for all messages from your account.
  6. Choose Save changes.

If you don’t want to register sender id, then skip this method: set_sns_client_attrs and publish the sms. It take the sms as ‘Promotional’ and sender id will be 8 character random number. Amazon use this type of sms from International route and it costs you almost $0.02 (Rs. 1.5) per sms. Very high rate. So I recommend to register any sender id that resembles your product or company name, from Jio trueconnect (that is free, link given below) and use it in SNS.

If you don’t know how to register sender id, follow this:

For AWS SNS service, there is 2 way of sending sms.

  1. Local route
  2. International route

For local route the price is Rs. 0.20 per sms
For international route the price will be Rs 1.58 per sms – too high

by default AWS SNS use International route

If you are from India follow the TRAI registration
For considering local route we have to register our use case and message templates with TRAI .

So first register here:
https://www.vilpower.in/
as an enterprise / company with all company details and our purpose

These registration requirements are designed to reduce the number of unsolicited messages that Indian consumers receive, and to protect consumers from potentially harmful messages

You can Register in Jio for free:

The link to register:
https://trueconnect.jio.com/#/home/entity-registration
Select Principal entity and continue

Recently Indian Govt made DLT Registration mandatory for sending sms.

Example:
Take Msg from AD-ZOMATO , here ZOMATO is 6 char sender id that we can give in the service provider and send sms before. But now we have to register this in DLT then only our service provider can use this.

After registering DLT we get an ENTITY ID. This entity id need to be attached in our’s otp service provider for sending otp msgs.

If you are using SNS service for the first time you should increase your SMS quota:

AWS says:

If you're new to SMS messaging with Amazon SNS, request a monthly SMS spending threshold that meets the expected demands of your SMS use case. By default, your monthly spending threshold is $1.00 (USD). You can request to increase your spending threshold in the same support case that includes your request for a sender ID

Because Amazon SNS is a distributed system, it stops sending SMS messages within minutes of the spending quota being exceeded. During this period, if you continue to send SMS messages, you might incur costs that exceed your quota.

https://docs.aws.amazon.com/sns/latest/dg/channels-sms-awssupport-sender-id.html

Requesting increases to your monthly SMS spending quota for Amazon SNS:

https://docs.aws.amazon.com/sns/latest/dg/channels-sms-awssupport-spend-threshold.html

Currently, Amazon SNS supports SMS messaging in the following AWS Regions:

https://docs.aws.amazon.com/sns/latest/dg/sns-supported-regions-countries.html

Reference:

https://docs.aws.amazon.com/sdk-for-ruby/v2/api/Aws/SNS/Client.html

Liferay 7.3: Create custom database services (service-builder)

STEP 1:

Open the IDE. Goto File -> New -> Liferay Module Project


Select `service-builder` as Template

Click Next. Provide the package name and click finish

After that you can see two folders are created (*-api and *-service) inside your workspace.

And three folders in the IDE

Open siteService-service and click on service.xml . Click on the Entities and delete the default Foo column

And then add the Entity named Site . It is just an Entity, that connects to the table.

Click on the Site Entity and provide the table name

Add the Table Name

Add the columns as many as you want.

Select the column type from here:

Click on the Source Tab and you can see in the service.xml details of all columns that added.

Double click on the buildService to build the new service and double click on the deploy to deploy the service.

Now click on the down arrow and gradle -> refresh project. You can see the bundles created.

And the .jar bundles inside the osgi modules

Copy this *-api.jar file into the deploy folder of the server.

~/liferay-ce-portal-tomcat-7.3.0-ga1-20200127150653953/liferay-ce-portal-7.3.0-ga1/deploy

and then copy the *-service.jar into the same folder

You can see these are processing and started in the server logs.

INFO  [com.liferay.portal.kernel.deploy.auto.AutoDeployScanner][AutoDeployDir:263] Processing sitesService.api.jar

~/liferay-ce-portal-tomcat-7.3.0-ga1-20200127150653953/liferay-ce-portal-7.3.0-ga1/osgi/modules][BundleStartStopLogger:39] STARTED sitesService.api_1.0.0 [1115]

[com.liferay.portal.kernel.deploy.auto.AutoDeployScanner][AutoDeployDir:263] Processing sitesService.service.jar

~/liferay-ce-portal-tomcat-7.3.0-ga1-20200127150653953/liferay-ce-portal-7.3.0-ga1/osgi/modules][BundleStartStopLogger:39] STARTED sitesService.service_1.0.0 [1116]


Now check the database, if the Site_ table with all columns are created or not

You can see the table and columns are created. In the next topic we discuss about adding services to this service builder.